ه‍.ش. ۱۳۸۹ مهر ۱۵, پنجشنبه

پیشنهادهای روزانه ی مطالعه - 9: مطالعات خاور میانه در نشریه ی اورینت


Deutsche Zeitschrift für Politik, Wirtschaft und Kultur des Orients
German Journal for Politics, Economics and Culture of the Middle East

Herausgeben vom Deutschen Orient-Institut in Berlin

هنرور: نشریه ی اورینت (مشرق) حاوی مقالاتی جدی در مقولاتی عمده و اساسی است که در موضوعات مورد توجه و تعرض آن، صرف نظر و غفلت از مطالبش چندان قابل توصیه و توجیه نیست، و این امر منوط به توافق یا عدم توافق با دیدگاه های مطروحه در آن نیست. ناشر این نشریه موسسه ی همنام آن است که "موسسه ی مطالعات شرقی آلمان در برلین" است. این نشریه خود را چنین معرفی می کند:
ORIENT is the journal of the German Orient-Institute. It publishes in English.
 
Currently in its 51st year, ORIENT has established itself as a major reference on Middle Eastern politics, economics, religion and societies. Each issue focuses on a specific topic, such as the Muslim World and the Internet, the Shia, Turkey and the West or the U.S. and the Near and Middle East.
 
ORIENT positions itself at the juncture between academia and the interests of the business and media world. ORIENT publishes original scholarly articles and a broad range of book reviews. With four issues per year and a distribution of 2,000 it reaches scholars and decision makers in Germany and beyond.


 تا کنون این نویسندگان در آن قلم زده اند (به ترتیب الفبایی نام هایشان):

Abbas, Dr. Tahir
Ahmar, Prof. Moonis
Aktar, Dr. Cengiz
Al Husban, Dr. Abdel Hakim K.
Ali Shah, Prof. Sayed Wiqar
Aydin, Yaşar
Bahgat, Dr. Gawdat
Bälz, Dr. Kilian
Berger, Dr. Lars
Bilir, Dr. Ünal
Brinkmann, Dr. Stefanie
Brunner, PD Dr. Rainer
Brückner, Matthias
Caglar, Baris
Clawson, Dr. Patrick
Daum, Dr. Werner
Ehteshami, Prof. Dr. Anoushiravan
Elsässer, Sebastian
Erozan, Dr. Boğaç
Fels, Patrick
Fetzer, Ph.D. Joel S.
Frey, Dr. Karsten J.
Ghadban, Dr. Ralph
Ghoneim, Dr. Ahmed Farouk
Gräf, Dr. Bettina
Guarcello, Lorenco
Hajatpour, Dr. Reza
Hanrath, Jan
Hippler, Dr. Jochen
Höhne-Sparborth, Thomas
Hunter, Dr. Shireen T.
Hülsse, Dr. Rainer
Katz, Dr. Mark N.
Kaweh, Dr. Silvia
Kesen, Nebi
Kfir, Dr. Isaac
Kibaroglu, Dr. Mustafa
Koch, Dr. Christian
Leghari, Faryal
Loimeier, Prof. Dr. Roman
Lyon, Scott
Malik, Prof. Dr. Jamal
Manea, Dr. Elham
Marbro, Robert
Mohamed Naim, Dr. Asmadi
Möller, Almut
Mudhoon, Loay
Mulack, Dr. Gunter
Mühlbock, Dr. Monika Fatima
Müller, Prof. Dr. Harald
Mützenich, Dr. Rolf
Na'amneh, Dr. Mahmood
Nienhaus, Prof. Dr. Volker
Özdemir, Dr. Durmuş
Peter, Dr. Frank
Rahimi, Dr. Babak
Richter, Carola
Rivlin, Ph.D. Paul
Rizvi, Dr. Sajjad H.
Rohe, Prof. Dr. Mathias
Rubin, Prof. Barry
Schmid, Dr. Hansjörg
Schmidinger, Thomas
Schmidt, Dr. Rudolf
Scholz, Jan
Schröter, Prof. Dr. Susanne
Selge, Tobias
Sheikh, Nusrat
Siapera, Dr. Eugenia
Soper, Ph.D. J. Christopher
Stille, Max
Stoecker, Folkmar - Botschafter a.D.
Supersberger, Dr. Nikolaus
Takeuchi, Hanna
Wilson, Prof. Rodney
Zimmermann, Johannes

در سال 2010 سه شماره منشر شده که در ادامه ی مطلب مروری بر فهرست آنها می کنیم. ذیل این مرور، تحت عنوان آرشیو همه ی شماره ها دسترسی به محتویات شماره های پیشین هم وجود دارد. نیاز به ذکر این نکته نیست که این مقالات رایگان نیستند و تنها چکیده ی مقالات در دسترس کاربران عادی قرار دارد.



 شماره ی یکم سال 2010: ویژه نامه ی جهان اسلام و اینترنت


Focus: The Muslim World & the Internet

Dr. Eugenia Siapera
Networked Palestine. Exploring Power in Online Palestinian Networks
This article is concerned with the question of power in Web 2.0 networks. It focuses on the issue of Palestine, and seeks to show the new power configurations in these kinds of network. Implied in the rhetoric of Web 2.0 is that power and hierarchy are somehow diffused, decentralized, and to an extent also disabled. Within this often celebratory language, there is a tendency to dismiss power structures and hierarchies as no longer relevant in the days of network organisation. This paper poses therefore the question of power in an explicit way, seeking to trace its new configurations within Web 2.0 applications. In empirical terms, the question of power will be discussed in a case study looking at ‘Palestine’ in the context of Web 2.0. The choice of Palestine is significant: in a global geopolitical environment which has turned Palestine into an underdog, fighting an uneven fight, considerably disadvantaged and impoverished, the blogosphere offers an apparently more egalitarian space within which it can voice its concerns. But are the networks developed really egalitarian? Where is power located within these networks, and what are its accomplishments for Palestine? This paper will address these questions through studying a Palestinian issue network and a blogging network. In both cases, three main questions will be asked: Who (or what) has power over the network? What is the power of the network? What are the power dynamics within the network? The findings suggest that offline power structures and hierarchies both enable and limit Palestinian networks. Secondly, that the actual efficacy of the networks under study is limited, and finally, that while the blogging network appears to be egalitarian this is probably because it is a network of similar blogs operated by people of very similar educational and cultural background.
Networks, Palestine, Blogosphere, Internet
Jan Scholz, Tobias Selge, Max Stille, Johannes Zimmermann
Listening to more than Islam.
Approaching identities through the auditive dimension of podcasts
Trying to reach beyond essentialist concepts often employed in the field of Internet-related Islamicist research, this article wants to suggest an approach to Islam-related online contents that focuses on the specificities of the different media available to the producers of such contents and on the decisions of the latter related to this diversity. The approach will be illustrated by analysing the oral and performative aspects of the audio medium podcast represented by a number of selected podcasts featuring Islamic contents and produced by Muslim groups and individuals.
Islam, Podcasts, Internet
Matthias Brückner
Ein islamisches Tabakverbot?
Untersuchung anhand moderner islamischer Rechtsgutachten
Some Islamic jurists try to establish a prohibition of tobacco by way of analogy to the intoxicating effect of alcohol. This remains doubtful because an intoxicating effect of smoking does not exist. Smoking rather does harm to the body than to the spirit. As fatwas have a strong interactive aspect, they fit in very well with the Internet. Since 1995, myriads of fatwa online services have come into life. Meanwhile, the number of online fatwas is uncountable. It is estimated that the number is at least higher than 100,000. The Internet makes the differences of opinion more visible. A contradicting opinion may be “just one mouse click away.” The habits of a mufti may influence his opinion as well. Muftis who are smokers themselves just have the option to allow the use of tobacco, such as e. g., Ayatollah Khui.
Islam, Tabak, Rechtsgutachten
Dr. Abdel Hakim K. Al Husban, Dr. Mahmood Na'amneh
Primordial Ties Vis-à-Vis Citizenship: The Particularity of the Jordanian City
This paper seeks to investigate the vital role played by the primordial attachments which are based on ties of blood, race, language, region, and religion in shaping the Jordanian society and identity. In a society like Jordan, which is labelled as a tribal society and is largely produced and reproduced by primordial loyalties and attachments, concepts of the individual and citizenship seem almost non-existent. Throughout this paper, it is argued that unlike the European city, the Jordanian city has played a crucial role in producing, reproducing, maintaining and reinforcing tribal affiliations and identities. Moreover, the paper illustrates the essentialist mosaic and segmentary models of collective identity which are adopted by Western scholars in particular when studying the Arab world including the Jordanian society.
Jordan, Citizenship, Language, Religion

 شماره ی دوم سال 2010


ORIENT II/2010

Joel S. Fetzer, Ph.D, and J. Christopher Soper, Ph.D
The Not So Naked Public Square: Islam and the State in Western Europe
The migration and settlement of large numbers of Muslims in Western Europe in recent decades has posed a challenge to European secularism. As European Muslims began to turn to the state for public recognition of their religious rights, these residents exposed a conflict between Europe’s supposedly secular political culture and state policies that provided myriad benefits to religious groups. This article examines how Muslims highlighted tensions inherent in European church-state practices and explores how European states might best ensure the successful incorporation of Muslims into their respective societies.
Islam, Europe, secularism, integration
Dr. Shireen T. Hunter
Europe’s Muslim Minority: The Challenge of Integration
The article deals with the large Muslim presence in Europe which is facing European countries, as well as Muslim communities, with multifaceted and difficult issues and challenges of integration. The biggest problem in tackling the integration challenge is that no one can agree on what precisely integration means. Many Europeans equate integration with assimilation, while Muslims are fearful of the term as a code word for the erasing of their religion and culture. Yet, there are clear criteria according to which the level of Muslim integration in Europe can be measured and future integration promoted: These are, legal, linguistic / educational, economic, civil, cultural and psychological criteria. Judged on these criteria the degree of Muslim integration is far from satisfactory. Yet the several problems would be insurmountable if both Muslims and Europeans realized that integration is a two way process; Muslims must be willing to integrate and the Europeans must be willing to accept them.
Islam, Europe, integration, assimilation
Prof. Dr. Mathias Rohe
Islam and the Law in Europe
In his paper, Prof. Rohe is focussing on the obstacles, challenges and problems with the full integration of Muslims in the several law systems in Europe and is in particular focusing on the current situation in Germany that has one of the largest Muslim populations in the European Union. Since many of them still have an immigration background, there are specific migration-related topics to be addressed. These are, however, secular in nature; they do not concern Muslims’ religious beliefs or their religious needs as such. Since September 11, 2001, Muslims in Europe and other Western societies have faced what has come to be known as “Islamophobia.” Many Muslims in Europe still tend to seek practical solutions for reconciling their own religious beliefs and practices with legal and other codes of secular European societies. Within the last few years European Muslims have also tried to formulate theoretical statements to clarify their positions on these issues, identify possible conflicts between legal and religious norms, and find adequate solutions for such conflicts.
Islam, Europe, law, Islamophobia, immigration, integration
Dr. Hansjorg Schmid
Representation or Participation? How German Muslims Seek to be Recognized
To be recognized constitutes one of the central goals of German Muslims. Representation and participation can be described as two strategies for recognition. Since the processes of constructing Islam in Germany are variegated, several fields are explored under the key focus which of the two strategies dominates: building up umbrella organisations, social commitment, Islamic religious education, Islamic theology, interreligious dialogue and Muslim articulation in the media. Finally, the process of the Muslims’ entering the arena of civil society through participation is compared with the situation of the churches which in the German context are traditionally stateoriented institutions.
Islam, Europe, Germany, Representation, Participation,
Dr. Tahir Abbas
The British Pakistani Diaspora: Migration, Integration and the Intersection of Race, Ethnicity and Religion
This paper provides a sociological overview of the post-war immigration, settlement and community development of British Pakistanis. First, there is an historical perspective on issues of migration and settlement. Second, an analysis of demographics and social mobility provides a deeper socio-economic contextualisation, with a focus on the city of Birmingham as a test case. Finally, the implications for community development in the context of plural societies is explored in the light of recent events where British Pakistanis have attained less favourable notoriety, namely in questions of socio-economic status, radicalisation and extremism. It is suggested that there are significant challenges facing this community, but very few real social, economic, political and cultural opportunities to better engage in society.
Islam, Europe, Britain, Pakistan, migration, integration
Dr. Ralph Ghadban
Fiqh al-aqalliyyÁt and its Place into Islamic Law
Besides the well known attempts of modernizing Islam through theology there is a wide field of approaches which are intending to integrate modernity into Islam. Those approaches with many different names are based on the fiqh and can be categorized into two groups under the labels fiqh al-nawÁzil and fiqh al-aqalliyyÁt. The paper intends to explain the similitudes and the differences between both fiqh and their relation to the classical fiqh. Further it intends to show how far the fiqh approach can succeed in modernizing Islam.
Islam, Islamic law, fiqh
Thomas Schmidinger
Yemen: State Failure by Regime Support?
This article considers the causes of conflict in Yemen and poses the following question: can the western states’ strategy of providing financial, logistic and military support to the government under President Ali Abdullah Saleh contribute to stabilizing the country, or could it weaken the Yemenite state instead? In matters of international security, the USA and other western states have been focusing their attention on Yemen since autumn 2009. At a London conference in late January, twenty-one foreign ministers of industrialized western states debated the matter of providing aid to President Ali Abdullah Saleh and his government.
Yemen, State Failure, USA
Dr. Mark N. Katz
Yemen and the “War on Terror”
While the US is more concerned about the presence of Al Qaeda in Yemen, the Yemeni government is more concerned about its more powerful domestic opponents: the Houthi rebels in the north and the secessionists in the south. Much to Washington’s chagrin, Sana’a has sometimes seen Al Qaeda and its sympathizers as allies against these other domestic opponents. Although Sana’a has recently renewed its cooperation with the US against Al Qaeda, it is not clear whether it is doing so because Sana’a really has come to see Al Qaeda as more of a threat (as US officials claim) or because it sees making a show of cooperating with the US against Al Qaeda as a useful way of obtaining American resources for suppressing its other opponents.
Yemen, State Failure, War on Terror, Al Qaeda
Lorenzo Guarcello and Scott Lyon
Children’s work and water access in Yemen
The strong link between water access and child health is well-documented. Much less is known about how water access affects children's activity patterns. Empirical evidence presented in this paper indicates that providing households with ready water access makes it much more likely that the children from these households attend school, and much less likely that they are reported as being idle. Improving water access also reduces the likelihood of children being economically active, though the effect is smaller in magnitude.
Yemen, Children, Water
Dr. Ahmed Farouk Ghoneim
Yemen's Prerequisites for Effective Integration in the World Economy
Yemen can be characterized by most indicators as a liberal, open, market economy. However, Yemen to a large extent lacks the organizations and institutions necessary for an efficient functioning of a liberal open economy that are able to ensure positive outcomes of market processes through regulating and monitoring the functioning of a market economy. The absence of an antidumping authority and a competition authority is a case in point. Despite several policies undertaken by the Government of Yemen (GOY) to liberalize and reform trade, such policies have not been translated into significant changes in enhancing non-oil exports. Remittances are considered an important source of revenue. The potential is high for Yemen on enhancing services exports and foreign direct investment, while there is a limited potential for diversifying merchandise exports. To reap such potential, the most important challenge for Yemen is to improve the institutions and organizations capable of enhancing such potential.
Yemen, Economy, Integration
Dr. Werner Daum
Yemen – A short History of three Millennia
During the first millennium BC, the caravan kingdoms of Yemen provided Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome with their most expensive luxuries: frankincense and myrrh, cinnamon and cassia. The legendary Incense Road, the world's oldest trading route, connected India and Arabia with the Mediterranean. During the high Middle Ages, Yemen under the Rasulids was once again at the heart of world trade: farsighted policies made the Indian Ocean a cultural, religious and commercial unity, centred on Aden.
Yemen, History
Dr. Babak Rahimi
The Virtual Ulama: Dissent, Internet and Shi‘i Clerics in Post-revolutionary Iran
An attempt is made to study the political impact of Internet on Shi‘i Iran since the mid-1990s, when the new information technology was first introduced to post-revolutionary Iran. The study underlines the ways in which Shi‘I groups of various political factions, while guided under the spiritual leadership of diverse Grand Ayatollahs based in Qom and Najaf, have used the new information technology to carve out new spaces of dissent against the Iranian theocracy since the election of the reformist cleric, Mohammad Khatami, in 1997. Based on interviews in Iran and text analysis of websites, the study examines Shi‘i cyber activism in terms of a new political discourse of selfhood, piety, politics and spiritual authority. The study looks at Internet in three significant phases of development: First, the “reformist period,”. the second phase is referred to as “Najaf period,” and the third stage, the “Green period,” is identified here in close connection with the turmoil following the disputed 2009 Presidential Elections.
Iran, Shia, Internet, Cyber Activism

 شماره ی سوم سال 2010









آرشیو همه ی شماره ها

 ORIENT III / 2010

 
 ORIENT III / 2010
ORIENT II / 2010
 ORIENT I / 2010
ORIENT II / 2010
 
 ORIENT I / 2010
ORIENT IV / 2009
 
 ORIENT III / 2009
ORIENT IV / 2009
 
  ORIENT III / 2009
ORIENT II / 2009
 
 orient i-2009
  ORIENT II / 2009
 
ORIENT I  / 2009
orient iii-2008 
orient ii 2008 
ORIENT III / 2008
 
ORIENT II  / 2008
ORIENT I / 2008
  ORIENT IV / 2007
ORIENT I / 2008
 
ORIENT IV / 2007
   

 


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